A project is a temporary endeavor for achieving some unique time bound, cost bound, resource bound product or service. In a layman word, it can be said that project is the work which done for producing something unique in a time-bound manner. It is different from the operation in view that operation is the repetitive process of producing same product or service. Projects are many types of like construction projects, software projects or project for developing a new product like a new car model or developing a new service model.
We are going to discuss about the construction projects in Indian Context. There are two type of construction projects in India, one is Govt sponsored projects and others are private sector sponsored projects. As per the study by KPMG and PMI in the year 2012, it was found that almost 40% or Major Projects (Private as well Govt sectors) were delayed from their original schedule and 18 % were on the cost overrun. Here major projects are the projects of more than 500 crores of Investment. So, what is the reason for the delay and cost overrun of these Projects? The main bottleneck is our definition of the Project
Indian definition of project
Indian Definition of the construction project is to make a building, facility or structures without any proper planning and financial closure out. This poorly planned project cause future scope changes, financial problems and project acceptance issues.
Project methodologies in India
The main methodology used in India in construction project management is first to move the construction team to the site and then the planning of the Project should start. There is 10% time devoted to the planning of the project and 90% of the time devoted to the execution of the project. Any issues related to scope, time, cost raised during execution due to poor project planning then resolved at site level during execution of the project. This may cause construction work to stop or alter the already constructed thing till the issue resolved.
The pitfall of these methodologies
The lack of project planning cause wastage of resources as well schedule and cost overrun. The sudden issue arises during the construction of the project cause total standstill of the project as risk planning was not done for the project. The unknown factors which can arise in future did not anticipate and so their impact on project and planning for mitigation also not thought. This single issue causes the complete stoppage of the work. Many Indian Infrastructure Project like Bandra Worli sea link, Delhi Mumbai Freight corridor project took or still taking the double the time and cost allotted initially to these. The main reason for failure in managing these projects were poor planning and no risk planning. The issues arise in between the construction of the project were not anticipated and the project got standstill until those issues are planned and resolved.
New methodologies in project management
So, where we stand in the construction Project management is the world scenario. We are still lacking in implementing the basic project management methodology in the construction management, other advanced technologies like Risk management, earned value management and Construction delay claim methodologies are still to be experimented by the Indian project owners.
Projects cannot go as per planned initially, it is the universal truth, but it is also true that if we have proper planning and methodologies for adapting the changes it will not impact our schedule and cost of the project severely. In developed countries, 50% of the time devoted to the proper planning of the project. Every minute detail of the scope of the Project discussed and frozen. Every risk which can be happened below the sky discussed, written down and risk mitigation plan prepared and frozen. During the 50% timing of the project execution, the initially frozen and approved plan followed as religiously and any changes to the plan go for scrutinizing and approval before implementing. As most of the time devoted for proper planning of the project, eventually there is not a single event or change occur which were not anticipated during the planning and this leads to proper execution and handling over the Project. There are many methodologies and theories in the different part of the world for Project management like PMI in USA and IPMA and Prince 2 in the European countries. All these theories emphasis on proper and detailed planning of the project before execution of the project.
Future way to the Indian construction industry
The 21st century belongs to India as its growing workforce, young population and world’s biggest middle-income group can lead to a booming economy. But the same economy can only be sustainable if its Major Infrastructures are at par with the global standards. It must reach a mile to cater the Road, Power, Oil & Gas infrastructures to this growing economy. It can only be obtained by following proper project management procedures, so our Infrastructure Projects do not fail us in schedule and cost part. As the delayed and cost overrun projects changed the entire economics of the project for the need which it has taken for.